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Correlational findings

Study Hills et al. (2015): study ZZ Europe 1973

Public:
15+ aged, general public, 5 EU nations, 1973-2009
Survey name:
EU-Eurobarometer combined waves
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 119
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Valence of words used in books
Our Classification
Operationalization
2 step rating of positiveness of words used in books in a language in a year:

Step1:
Rating of Intrinsic attractiveness or aversiveness of words. Respondents were asked to value of common words, such as 'abandon'. 'abbey', 'ability'... etc.. The number of words valued varied per nation from 1003 words in German to 1034 words in the UK and Spain. Each word was rated by 20 participants per nation on the following scale:
   -3:: Most negative association
   -2
   -1
    0
  +1
  +2
  +3: most positive association
Ratings were recoded afterwards to range 1-9 and a mean per nation was computed

Step 2:
Assesment of average valence of words used in books in the national language using Google Book database

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +1.5 p < .01 AVERAGE happiness in nation by average valence of words used in books in 119 nation/year combinations 1973-2000
b controlled for:
- country fixed effects
- year fixed effects
- number of words covered
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b = .90 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +1,4 p < .01 b additionally controled for GDP O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b = .90 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +1,4 p < .01 b when years extended from 1973-2009 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b = .90 O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +2.2 p < .01 b without Spain and France (N nation/year 78). O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b = .95 (