Correlational findings

Study Tsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990

18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
Survey name
INT-WorldValuesSurvey 1-3
N = 80000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Years of openness
Our Classification
Source: Wacziarg and Welch (2003)
M=18,43  SD=17,30
Related specification variables
Number of years a country is classified as 'open'.

A country is classified as open if it displays ALL of the following characteristics:
(1) average tariff rates of 40% of more
(2) nontariff barriers covering 40% or more of trade
(3) a black market exchange rate that is depreciated by 20% or more relative to official exchange rate
(4) a state monopoly on major exports
(5) a socialist economic system.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a r = +.57 AVERAGE happiness by years of openness in 64 nations O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = +.02 p < .05 b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = +.02 p < .01 b additionally controls for:
-Latin america dummy*years of openness

(b interaction=-.08, p<.05)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = +.00 ns EXCLUDING EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = +.62 AVERAGE life satisfaction by years of openness in 74 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.01 ns b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy

Results are similar when sample excludes Eastern Europe.