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Correlational findings

Study Tsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990

Public:
18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
Survey name:
INT-WorldValuesSurvey 1-3
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 80000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Openness
Our Classification
Remarks
Source: Wacziarg and Welch (2003)
Operationalization
1: Open
0: Closed

A country is classified as open if it displays ALL of the following characteristics:
(1) average tariff rates of 40% of more
(2) nontariff barriers covering 40% or more of trade
(3) a black market exchange rate that is depreciated by 20% or more relative to official exchange rate
(4) a state monopoly on major exports
(5) a socialist economic system.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Special Research Type Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = +.21 ns Cross-national AVERAGE happiness by openness in 64 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.27 ns Cross-national AVERAGE life satisfaction by openness in 74 nations

b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy

Results are similar when sample excludes Eastern Europe.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.71 p < .05 Cross-national b additionally controls for:
-interaction: Eastern Europe*openness
(b interaction=-.85, p<.05)