Correlational findings

Study Tsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990

18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
Survey name
INT-WorldValuesSurvey 1-3
N = 80000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Latin America dummy
Our Classification
9 Latin American countries.
Related specification variables

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a r = +.21 AVERAGE happiness by geographic location in 65 nations O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = +.63 p < .01 b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-Militarism index
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = +1.5 p < .01 b additionally controls for:
-Latin america dummy*years of openness

(b interaction=-.08, p<.05)
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = +.22 ns b additionally controls for:
-Eastern Europe dummy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = +.21 AVERAGE life satisfaction by geographic location in 76 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.99 p < .001 b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-Militarism index
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.57 p < .05 b additionally controls for:
-openness (closed=0)
-Eastern Europe dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy*openness

Results are similar when b controls for:
-militarism index (military spending + size of military personnel)
-Latin America dummy
-years of openness (the number of years a country has implemented uninterrupted openness policy)
-Latin America*years of openness
-closed to open economy (always closed economy=0)
-always open economy
-Eastern European dummy
-Eastern European dummy*openness
-average tariff
-black market premium (black market exchange rate relative to official exchange rate)
-export marketing board (degree of state monopoly on exports)

Results are also similar when sample excludes Eastern Europe.