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Correlational findings

Study Tsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990

Public:
18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
Survey name:
WorldValuesSurvey 1-3
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 80000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Militarism index
Our Classification
Operationalization
Military spending over GDP and military personnel over total labour forces.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a r = -.14 AVERAGE happiness by militarism index in 65 nations O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = -.07 ns b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth
-inflation
-Latin America dummy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = -.11 p < .10 EXCLUDING EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

b additionally controls for:
-openness (closed=1)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = -.17 AVERAGE life satisfaction by militarism index in 76 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = -.15 p < .05 b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-inflation
-Latin America dummy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = -.20 p < .001 b additionally controls for:
-closed to open economy (always closed economy=0)
-always open economy

Results are similar when b controls for:
-militarism index (military spending + size of military personnel)
-Latin America dummy
-openness
-years of openness (the number of years a country has implemented uninterrupted openness policy)
-Latin America*years of openness
-closed to open economy (always closed economy=0)
-always open economy
-Eastern European dummy
-Eastern European dummy*openness
-average tariff
-black market premium (black market exchange rate relative to official exchange rate)
-export marketing board (degree of state monopoly on exports)

Results are also similar when sample excludes Eastern Europe.