Correlational findings

Study Tsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990

18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
Survey name
INT-WorldValuesSurvey 1-3
N = 80000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Our Classification
Related specification variables

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = -.21 p < .01 AVERAGE happiness by inflation in 65 nations

b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = -.10 ns b additionally controls for:
-Militarism index
-Lation America dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = -.19 p < .001 AVERAGE life satisfaction by inflation in 76 nations

b controls for:
-GNI per capita
-GDP growth rate
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.40 ns b additionally controls for:
-Eastern Europe dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy*openness

Results are similar when b controls for:
-militarism index (military spending + size of military personnel)
-Latin America dummy
-years of openness (the number of years a country has implemented uninterrupted openness policy)
-Latin America*years of openness
-closed to open economy (always closed economy=0)
-always open economy
-Eastern European dummy
-Eastern European dummy*openness
-average tariff
-black market premium (black market exchange rate relative to official exchange rate)
-export marketing board (degree of state monopoly on exports)

Results are also similar when sample excludes Eastern Europe.