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Correlational findings

Study Welsch (2002): study ZZ World samples 2000

Public:
18+ aged, general public, 54 countries, 2000
Survey name:
INT-WorldValuesSurvey 4
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 55000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Rationality (Number of scientists and engineers per capita)
Our Classification
Remarks
Source: Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) (2001)
Distribution
M=2,593  SD=1,254
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Special Research Type Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = +.03 ns Cross-national AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE rationality in 54 countries. O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = -.13 p < .01 Cross-national b controls for:
-income (GNP per capita)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = -.03 ns Cross-national b controls for:
-political freedom
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = -.13 p < .01 Cross-national b controls for:
-income (GNP per capita)
-political freedom
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = -.41 p < .01 Cross-national b controls for:
-rationality squared

Similar results are obtained when b additionally controls for:
-political freedom
-political freedom squared
-income
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = +.08 p < .01 Cross-national b is for rationality squared.

b controls for:
-rationality

Similar results are obtained when b additionally controls for:
-political freedom
-political freedom squared
-income
-income squared

Analysis using seemingly unrelated regressions yields similar results.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a = Cross-national Total marginal impact of rationality on happiness.
The total positive impact of rationality on happiness is generally greater among rich nations.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a = Cross-national Direct marginal impact of rationality on happiness.
The direct positive impact of rationality on happiness is generally greater among rich nations.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a = Cross-national Direct marginal impact of rationality on happiness.
The indirect positive impact (via income) of rationality on happiness is generally greater among rich nations.

The y-axis shows the relationship between rationality and happiness for each country, based on the regression coefficients.

The x-axis shows national income (GNP per capita).