Correlational findings

Study Rode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995

18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005
Survey name:
INT-WorldValuesSurvey 1994-2008
N = 180000
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
Our Classification
Part of Economic Freedom Index (Fraser Institute: Gwartney, Hall, & Lawson, 2011).
A: Credit market regulations
Aa: Ownership of banks
Ab: Private sector credit
Ac: Interest rate controls/negative real interest rates
B: Labour market regulations
Ba: Hiring regulations and minimum wage
Bb: Hiring and firing regulations
Bc: Centralized collective bargaining
Bd: Hours regulations
Be: Mandated cost of worker dismissal
Bf: Conscription
C: Business regulations
Ca: Administrative requirements
Cb: Bureaucracy costs
Cc: Starting a business
Cd: Extra payments/bribes/favoritism
Ce: Licensing restrictions
Cf: Cost of tax compliance

Ranges from 1 (least free) to 10 (most free).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.13 p < .05 AVERAGE happiness by regulation
In 87 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.14 ns In 61 poor countries (GDP per capita less than $20,000) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.09 ns In 43 rich countries (GDP per capita more than $10,000)
b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
-regional dummies
-period dummies