Correlational findings

Study Rode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995

18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005
Survey name
INT-WorldValuesSurvey 1994-2008
N = 180000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Freedom to trade
Our Classification
Part of Economic Freedom Index (Fraser Institute: Gwartney, Hall, & Lawson, 2011).
Related specification variables
A: Tariffs
Aa: Revenue from trade taxes (% of trade sector)
Ab: Mean tariff rate
Ac: Standard deviation of tariff rates
B: Regulatory trade barriers
Ba: Non-tariff trade barriers
Bb: Compliance costs of importing and exporting
C: Black-market exchange rates
D: Controls of the movement of capital and people
Da: Foreign ownership/investment restrictions
Db: Capital controls
Dc: Freedom of foreigners to visit

Ranges from 1 (least free) to 10 (most free).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.17 p < .01 AVERAGE happiness by freedom to trade
In 87 nations
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.15 p < .10 In 61 poor countries (GDP per capita less than $20,000) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.12 ns In 43 rich countries (GDP per capita more than $10,000)
b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
-regional dummies
-period dummies