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Correlational findings

Study Rode (2013): study ZZ World samples 1995

Public:
18+ years, general public, 87 countries, 1995-2005
Survey name:
WorldValuesSurvey 1994-2008
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 180000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Log GDP per capita
Our Classification
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.69 p < .01 AVERAGE happiness by log GDP per capita
In 87 nations

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.45 p < .01 b additionally controls for:
-economic freedom
-democracy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.37 p < .01 b additionally controls for:
-regional dummies
-period dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.47 p < .01 b controls for:
-size of government INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.42 p < .01 b controls for:
-legal system and property rights INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.40 p < .01 b controls for:
-sound money INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.40 p < .01 b controls for:
-freedom to trade INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.44 p < .01 b controls for:
-regulation INSTEAD of economic freedom
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.34 p < .01 In 61 poor countries (GDP per capita less than $20,000)

Similar coefficients are obtained when size of government, legal system and property rights, sound money, freedom to trade and regulation are controlled for INSTEAD of economic freedom.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.59 p < .01 In 43 rich countries (GDP per capita more than $10,000)

Similar coefficients are obtained when size of government, legal system and property rights, sound money, freedom to trade and regulation are controlled for INSTEAD of economic freedom.

b controls for:
-average memberships
-importance of God
-log GDP per capita (PPP)
-unemployment rate
-divorce rate
-democracy
-economic freedom
-regional dummies
-period dummies

Similar results are obtained when economic freedom is instrumented by:
- air distance to New York, Rotterdam, and Tokyo
- the fraction of the population that speaks English as a mother tongue

In sum: Higher levels of GDP per capita are associated with higher average life satisfaction.