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Correlational findings

Study Helliwell et al. (2014b): study ZZ World samples 2005

Public:
15+ years, general public, 157 countries, 2005-2012
Survey name:
Gallup poll
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 900000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Delivery quality
Our Classification
Operationalization
a: Government effectiveness (Expert estimates of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government's commitment to such policies.)

b: Regulatory quality (Expert estimates of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development.)

c: Rule of law (Expert estimates of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence.)

d: Control of corruption (Expert estimates  of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as "capture" of the state by elites and private interests.)

Delivery quality = (a+b+c+d)/4

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c b = +.81 p < .01 AVERAGE happiness by delivery quality in 157 nations in the period 2005-2012 (n=836).
- Without country fixed effects
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c b = +.84 p < .01 - With country fixed effects C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c b = +.84 p < .05 Countries with high delivery quality (greater than 0) (n=336) C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c b = +.81 p < .05 Countries with low delivery quality (lower than 0) (n=500)

b controls for:
- democratic quality
- year fixed effects

Similar patterns are obtained when b additionally controls for:
- Log GDP
- Healthy life expectancy
- Freedom to make life choices
- Generosity
- Social support
- Regional fixed effects

A similar result is also obtained when a regresson is conducted for 2005-2012 averages at the country level.

In sum: Delivery quality has a significantly positive effect on life satisfaction and the relationship is linear.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c b = +.78 p < .01 AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE democratic quality in 147 nations in the period 2005-2012 (n=734).

b controls for:
- Confidence in the national government (Gallup)
- Logged GDP
- Democratic quality
- Country fixed effects
- Year fixed effects

Similar results are obtained when b additionally controls for:
- Healthy life expectancy
- Freedom to make life choices
- Generosity
- Social support