Correlational findings

Study Welzel & Inglehart (2010): study ZZ World samples 1995

18+ aged, general public, 89 nations, 1995-2005
Survey name:
WorldValuesSurvey 1994-2008
N = 250000
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
Agency feeling
Our Classification
Self-report on single question: "Some people feel they have completely free choice and control over their lives, while other people feel that what they do has no real effect on what happens to them.
Please use this scale where 1 means 'no choice at all' and 10 means 'a great deal of choice' to indicate how much freedom of choice and control you feel you have over the way your life turns out."
Normalized scale from 0 for the least agentic position to 1 for the most agentic position.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.21 p < .001 INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL agency feeling in 76 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = For the same level of agentic strategies:
Agency feelings are positively associated with happiness (b interaction=+.49, p<.001).
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = ns Unaffected by:
-Western tradition
-interaction with communion
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = For the same level of monetary saturation:
Agency feelings are positively associated with happiness (b interaction=-.06, p<.001).

b controls for:
-societal characteristics
-Western tradition
-agentic life strategies
-individual characteristics
-biological age
-female sex
-income level
-education level
-interaction between societal characteristics (agentic strategy and Western tradition) with individual characteristics:
-communion emphasis (people's emphasis on family and friends as important life domains)
-monetary saturation (satisfaction with financial situation of household)
-agency feeling
-agency feeling*monetary saturation
-agency feeling*communion
-communion*monetary saturation

Method used is hierarchical linear modeling.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a = .42 1995-2005 CHANGE AVERAGE life satisfaction by CHANGE AVERAGE agency feeling in 76 nations