Correlational findings

Study Welzel & Inglehart (2010): study ZZ World samples 1995

18+ aged, general public, 89 nations, 1995-2005
Survey name
INT-WorldValuesSurvey 1994-2008
N = 250000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Communion emphasis
Our Classification
a: People's emphasis on family as an important life domain
b: People's emphasis on friends as an important life domain

Communion = a+b

Normalized into a scale from 0 for someone attributing no importance to both family and friends to 1 for someone attributing high importance to both.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.10 p < .001 INDIVIDUAL happiness by INDIVIDUAL communion emphasis in 76 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = ns Unaffected by:
-agentic strategies
-Western tradition
-interaction with agency feeling
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = For the same level of monetary saturation:
Communion is negatively associated with happiness (b interaction=-.07, p<.01).

Unaffected by interactions with:
-agentic strategies
-Western tradition

b controls for:
-societal characteristics
-Western tradition
-agentic life strategies
-individual characteristics
-biological age
-female sex
-income level
-education level
-interaction between societal characteristics (agentic strategy and Western tradition) with individual characteristics:
-communion emphasis (people's emphasis on family and friends as important life domains)
-monetary saturation (satisfaction with financial situation of household)
-agency feeling
-agency feeling*monetary saturation
-agency feeling*communion
-communion*monetary saturation

Method used is hierarchical linear modeling.