Correlational findings

Study Welzel & Inglehart (2010): study ZZ World samples 1995

18+ aged, general public, 89 nations, 1995-2005
Survey name
INT-WorldValuesSurvey 1994-2008
N =
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Western tradition
Our Classification
Source: Gerring et al. (2005) This index reflects a society's accumulated experience with liberal democracy with a premium on recent experience.
Higher values indicate greater experience with liberal democracy. This variable adds up the democracy scores a society has accumulated over time on the Polity IV autocracy-democracy index but depreciates scores from past years by 1% for each year they precede the reference year, 1995.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.27 p < .001 AVERAGE life satisfaction by Western tradition in 89 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.16 p < .001 70 nations.

b controls for:
-agentic life strategies

Method used is OLS.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.17 p < .001 76 nations.

b controls for:
-societal characteristics
-Western tradition
-agentic life strategies
-individual characteristics
-biological age
-female sex
-income level
-education level
-interaction between societal characteristics (agentic strategy and Western tradition) with individual characteristics:
-communion emphasis (people's emphasis on family and friends as important life domains)
-monetary saturation (satisfaction with financial situation of household)
-agency feeling
-agency feeling*monetary saturation
-agency feeling*communion
-communion*monetary saturation

Method used is hierarchical linear modeling.