Correlational findings

Study Welzel & Inglehart (2010): study ZZ World samples 1995

18+ aged, general public, 89 nations, 1995-2005
Survey name
INT-WorldValuesSurvey 1994-2008
N = 250000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Relative agentic life strategies
Our Classification
The average strength in each country by which people's feelings of agency ("Some people feel they have completely free choice and control over their lives, while other people feel what they do has no real effect on what happens to them. Please use this scale where 1 means 'no choice at all' and 10 means 'a great deal of choice' to indicate how much freedom of choice and control you feel you have over the way your life turns out.") impact their life satisfaction, compared to the effect of monetary saturation (satisfaction with one's financial situation) on their life satisfaction.
Related specification variables
Individual level correlations in nations between:
a: happiness and  agency feelings (perceived freedom and control)
b: happiness with monetary saturation (satisfaction with financial situation)

Relative agentic strategy = a-b

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = +.34 p < .001 AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE feelings of agency in 71 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.26 p < .001 b controls for:
-Western tradition (a society's experience with liberal democracy)

Method used is OLS.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.27 p < .001 76 nations.

b controls for:
-societal characteristics
-Western tradition
-individual characteristics
-biological age
-female sex
-income level
-education level
-interaction between societal characteristics (agentic strategy and Western tradition) with individual characteristics:
-communion emphasis (people's emphasis on family and friends as important life domains)
-monetary saturation (satisfaction with financial situation of household)
-agency feeling
-agency feeling*monetary saturation
-agency feeling*communion
-communion*monetary saturation

Method used is hierarchical linear modeling.