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Correlational findings

Study Elliott & Hayward (2009): study ZZ World samples 1999

Public:
18+aged, general public, 65 countries, 1999-2004
Survey name:
INT-WorldValuesSurvey 4
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 93142
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Religious attendance
Our Classification
Distribution
M=3,95  SD=2,12
Operationalization
Frequency of attendance at religious services, from 1 (never) to 7 (more than once per week).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.04 p < .05 b controls for individual characteristics:
-age
-education
-female
-married/partnered
-employment status (employed=1)
-religion:
-personal religious identity
-belong to the largest religious group dummy
-religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.04 p < .05 b additionally controls for national characteristics:
-freedom index (reflects government regulation of civil, religious, and political freedom)
-proportion of population in largest religion
-country level religious affiliation dummies
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.05 p < .001 b additionally controls for cross-level interactions between:
-freedom index and religious attendance
-freedom index and "am a religious person"

The positive effect of religious on happiness falls as the regulation index increases, based on the coefficient of the interaction term.
Beta=-.05 (p<.001)


Method used is hierarchical linear modelling.