Correlational findings

Study Tsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990

18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
Survey name:
WorldValuesSurvey 1-3
N = 80000
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
GNI per capita
Our Classification
Natural logarithm of GNI per capita.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a r = +.46 ns AVERAGE happiness by GNI per capita in 65 nations O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = +.35 p < .001 b controls for:
-GDP growth rate
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-a b = +.07 ns b additionally controls for:
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a r = +.66 ns AVERAGE life satisfaction by GNI per capita in 76 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.55 p < .001 b controls for:
-GDP growth rate
-Militarism index
-Latin America dummy

Results are similar when b controls for:
-militarism index (military spending + size of military personnel)
-Latin America dummy
-years of openness (the number of years a country has implemented uninterrupted openness policy)
-Latin America*years of openness
-closed to open economy (always closed economy=0)
-always open economy
-Eastern European dummy
-Eastern Europe dummy*openness
-average tariff
-black market premium (black market exchange rate relative to official exchange rate)
-export marketing board (degree of state monopoly on exports)

Results are also similar when sample excludes Eastern Europe.