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Correlational findings

Study Bjornskov (2014): study ZZ Europe 1975

Public:
14+ aged, 29 countries (EU member states and potential members), 1975-2011
Survey name:
EU-Eurobarometer combined waves
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 2000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Openness
Our Classification
Operationalization
Not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.04 p < .01 CHANGE AVERAGE happiness, by economic openness in nations.
B controlled for:
- Happiness 1 year before (to caputure CHANGE)
- Log GDP per capita
- Stable country characteristics
  - Legal quality
  - Social trust
  - Postcommunist
  - Government size
  - Investment price
  - Regulations
- Crisis (episodes  in which the year-to-year change in purchasing power adjusted GDP per capita is negative)

Random effects model. Fixed effects: B = -.02 (ns)

Random effects model: B = +0,037 (.01)
Fixed effects model:  B = -0,016 (ns)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.04 p < .01 No significant change when B additionally controlled for:
- GDP growth rate (instead of Log GDP per capita)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.04 p < .01 No significant change, when B additionally controlled for interaction:
- Growth*crisis