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Correlational findings

Study Sarracino (2008): study ZZ World samples 1990

Public:
18+ aged, general public, 39 nations, 1990-2001
Survey name:
INT-WVS: combined waves
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 267870
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Education
Our Classification
Distribution
1: M=0.20, SD=0.32, 2: M=0.24, SD=0.43, 3: M=0.21, SD=0.41
Operationalization
1: illiteracy
2: low school education
3: high school education

rated: 1: yes, 0: no (dummy)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = -.04 ns ILLITERATE
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = -.13 ns High income nations O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = +.06 ns LOW EDUCATED
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = +.11 ns High income nations O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = -.27 p < .01 HIGH EDUCATED
Low income nations
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a OLRC = -.06 ns High income nations

OLRC's controlled for:
- socio-demographic aspects:
  - age
  - employment
  - marital status
- wealth
  - income
  - subjective health
- relational goods
  - time spend in social contacts
  - memberships of voluntary organizations
- social capital
  - perceived freedom and control
  - trust in people
  - honesty
- positional goods
  - social class
  - income quintile

In regression with only socio-economic variables illiteracy still has a negative effect, but it affects happiness the more in LICs (-.39), and coefficient in this model is significant for both groups of countries. Low school education has negative effect and more significant (p<.05) in LICs.