Correlational findings

Study Flavin et al. (2011): study ZZ Developed nations 2005

15+ aged, general public, 15 Industrialized Democracies, 2005-2009.
Survey name
INT-WVS: combined waves
N = 10405
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Size of the state
Our Classification
Data: See OECD 2009a, OECD 2009b Social welfare expenditures data: OECD (2011)
a) Tax revenue: tax revenue as percentage of GDP
b) Government share of GDP: government's consumption share of a country's real per capita GDP
c) Social wage: average gross unemployment benefit replacement rates for two earning levels, three family situations, and three durations of unemployment
d) Social welfare expenditures: country's social welfare expenditures as a percentage of GDP

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.03 p < .05 INDIVIDUAL happiness by size of state in nation

Tax Revenue
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.02 p < .01 Social Wage O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.04 p < .05 Share of GDP O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.03 p < .05 Social Welfare Expenditures

B’s controlled for:
-National characteristics
  -Unemployment rate
-Individual characteristics  
  -Church attendance
  -Trust in others