# Correlational findings

## Study Benesch et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995 /1

Public
15+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1995-2003
Survey name
EU-Combined surveys: ESS+WVS
Sample
Respondents
N = 72012
Non Response
3.3%
Assessment
Interview: face-to-face
Phone interview for remote areas

## Correlate

Authors's Label
TV viewing
Our Classification
Remarks
5th decile=0
Distribution
Residual TV viewing time: M=0.00, SD=0.92
TV viewing time: M = 2.00, SD = 1.05
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
A. In the ESS, the question is" on an average weekday, how much time do you spend watching television? "
Rated on 8 step scale, ranging from" no time at all" to "more than 3 hours".
B. In the WVS,  "How much time do you usually spend watching television on an average weekday?"
Answers fall into 4 categories from "do not watch television or do not have access to TV" to "more than 3 hours per day".

For each category, mid-point value is calculated and for more than 3 hours, the value is 3.5.

Decile value of residual TV viewing time, which influences the TV consumption, aside from the individual factors, is used.

## Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a = -.01 p < .05 B (-0.009) controlled for:
- individual characteristics
- income
- age, age,squared
- gender
- residence
- employmnet
- education
- marital status
- interaction with number of TV channels in the country

B -0.019 INDICATES THAT THE HIGHER A PERSON'S RESIDUAL TV CONSUMPTION IS, THE SMALLER THE MARGINAL EFFECT OF AN ADDITIONAL CHANNEL ON HIS OR HER LIFE SATISFACTION
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a = -.01 p < .05 B unaffected by additional control for
- national characteristics
- number of channels
- average TV viewing time in country (in minutes)
- gross national income (GNI, real and squared)
- survey

More negative in countries where the number of TV channels is greater (B interaction -.019(01)