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Correlational findings

Study Benesch et al. (2007): study ZZ World samples 1995 /1

Public:
15+ aged, general public, 45 nations, 1995-2003
Survey name:
EU Combined surveys: ESS+WVS
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 72012
Non Response:
3.3%
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Phone interview for remote areas

Correlate

Authors's label
TV viewing
Our Classification
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
A. In the ESS, the question is" on an average weekday, how much time do you spend watching television? "
Rated on 8 step scale, ranging from" no time at all" to "more than 3 hours".
B. In the WVS,  "How much time do you usually spend watching television on an average weekday?"
Answers fall into 4 categories from "do not watch television or do not have access to TV" to "more than 3 hours per day".

For each category, mid-point value is calculated and for more than 3 hours, the value is 3.5.

Decile value of residual TV viewing time, which influences the TV consumption, aside from the individual factors, is used.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = -.01 p < .05 B (-0.009) controlled for:
- individual characteristics
  - income
  - age, age,squared
  - gender
  - residence
  - employmnet
  - education
  - marital status
- interaction with number of TV channels in the country

B -0.019 INDICATES THAT THE HIGHER A PERSON'S RESIDUAL TV CONSUMPTION IS, THE SMALLER THE MARGINAL EFFECT OF AN ADDITIONAL CHANNEL ON HIS OR HER LIFE SATISFACTION
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = -.01 p < .05 B unaffected by additional control for
- national characteristics
  - number of channels
  - average TV viewing time in country (in minutes)
  - gross national income (GNI, real and squared)
- survey

More negative in countries where the number of TV channels is greater (B interaction -.019(01)