Correlational findings

Study Goldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado

9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 168
Non Response
Behavioural observation
Twins were assessed with the other twin present in room. Mother & father completed Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) independently from one another at home.


Authors's Label
Distress to Limitations
Our Classification
Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), Same rating scale as the "Smiling and Laughter" measure of happiness
Mother's & father's reports on child's fussing, crying, or showing distress while
a waiting for food,
b refusing a food,
c being in a confining place or position,
d being dressed or undressed
e being prevented access to an object toward which the child is directing her/his attention

Each rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-a mr = -.07 paternal report: r=+.12
maternal report: r=-.26