Correlational findings

Study Goldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado

9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
Survey name:
Unnamed study
N = 168
Non Response:
Behavioural observation
Twins were assessed with the other twin present in room. Mother & father completed Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) independently from one another at home.


Authors's label
Distress to Limitations
Our Classification
Mother's & father's reports on child's fussing, crying, or showing distress while
a waiting for food,
b refusing a food,
c being in a confining place or position,
d being dressed or undressed
e being prevented access to an object toward which the child is directing her/his attention

Each rated:
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-a mr = -.07 paternal report: r=+.12
maternal report: r=-.26