- College students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
- N = 952
- Non Response
- 30% (take home questionnaire).
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaires completed in c lass and at home
- Authors's Label
- Psycho-social development
- Our Classification
- Analysis on the basis of the 16 most happy and 16 least happy Ss in each of the 8 sex/class groups (N-256). The same items as in the Wessman & Ricks study were used. In this study each item was rated on a 7-point scale ranging from 'definitely most uncharacteristic of you' to 'definitely most characteristic of you'. Significance and elaboration were based on Analysis of Variance.
- Related specification variables
- 60-item inventory describing characte- ristics indicative of successful and unsuccessful resolutions of the first six developmental crises of Erikson's stages of psycho-social development (adapted from Wessman & Ricks; see last pages).
1a. Successful first stage: basic trust
1b. Unsuccessful firit stage: basic
2a. Successful second stage: autonomy.
2b. Unsuccessful second stage: shame
3a. Successful third stage: initiative.
3b. Unsuccessful third stage: guilt.
4a. Successful fourth stage: industry.
4b. Unsuccessful fourth stage:
5a. Successful fifth stage: identity.
5b. Unsuccessful fifth stage: identity
6a. Successful sixth stage: intimacy.
6b. Unsuccessful sixth stage: isolation
Observed Relation with Happiness
In senior years stronger among females.
Slightly positive among females.
Unaffected by stage of study.
Among females strongest in senior years and lowest in junior years.
Among females stronger in senior years.