Correlational findings

Study Glancy et al. (1986): study US 1947

High school pupils, rural area Pensylvania USA, followed 1947-1971
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 1521
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Leisure pattern factors
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Cronbach alpha: A:. Males .86; females .76 B: Males .78; females .62 C: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62 B: Males .78; females .62
List of 74 asked activities at T1 (1947) high school students did in their leisure:

a: play the radio, collect coins, read stories, collect autographs, Go to movies, collect pictures, read comic strips, use a camera, work problems , sew or knit, study history, repair things, study science, make boats

b: study literature, make airplanes, do crossword putties, make a radio, study trees, work with tools, study birds, Have a garden, study animals, drive an automobile, study butterflies, play with pets, draw or paint, raise animals, work in laboratory.

c: go fishing, make models or designs, climb or hike, do housework, skate, sing, ride a bicycle, play piano, ride a horse, make a scrapbook, practice first aid, keep a diary, play cards, write poems,play dominoes, speak pieces

d: play checkers, play an instrument, play chess, visit museums, collect stamps, go to church, go to Sunday school, belong to a club, belong to YMCA or YWCA, go to parks, engage in sports, go to a circus, sing in a chorus, sing in a glee club

e: belong to a gang, play ping pong, play croquet, play baseball, play tennis, go hunting, go riding with others, play in a band, play in an orchestra, go to church socials, go to parties, go to dances, be an officer of a club, be a class officer, go camping, play in an orchestra, go to church socials, go to parties.

Factors extracted:

A: Socializing
Activities which loaded heavily on this factor were peer group activities, probably engaged in outside of the family or adult-organised youth group settings.

B: Social performance-achievement.
This factor focused on activities which emphasised achieving performance goals, working with others, and participating in leadership roles. These activities generally required groups of young people and needed adult instruction or direction. Playing a musical instrument, being in a band, orchestra, or chorus, and being a club officer were important components.

C: Order and independence
Activities concerned with study of the natural environment and youths' interest in the order of the world around them were key to this factor. Study of birds, trees, animals, and butterflies, and engaging in labwork were included.

D: General knowledge
Information-seeking activities which were concerned with learning about the world were dominant in this factor. Major elements related to solitary activities of study and reading (study literature, history, science, read stories) that may have given youth access to a broad range of information.

E: Opposite-gender orientation
Items which presented the highest factor loadings here were activities which appeared to fit gender stereotypes for the opposite sex. Thus, for the males, the following items received the highest loadings: sew or knit, write poems, play chess, speak pieces, keep a diary, collect autographs, and play dominces. For the females, the items with the heaviest loadings were: make a radio, make boats, make airpianes, and work with tools. The level of participation in the most heavily loaded items of opposite gender orientation was not common for either
males or females.

F: Home-based and outdoor recreation
This factor emphasised activities that were likely to occur in the home or outdoor envi
ronment and required little organisation or leadership. Items dealing with raising animals, playing with pets, working with tools, going fishing and going hunting, climbing or hiking, and repairing things loaded highly.

G: Play
A seventh factor, unique to the girls, focused on games and play activities including playing checkers, dominoes, cardi,
chess, and working crossword puitlet.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa r = +.06 ns T1 (1947) leisure activity by T2 (1971) happiness
                     males           females
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa Beta = Socializing       r = +.06 (ns)    r = +.13 (01)
               Beta = +.09 (ns) Beta = +.13 (01)

Social            r = +.00 (ns)    r = +.06 (ns)
Performeance   Beta = -.00 (ns) Beta = +.00 (ns)

Order and         r = -.03 (ns)    r = +.04 (ns)
independence   Beta = -.03 (ns) Beta = +.04 (ns)

General knowledge r = -.03 (ns)    r = +.00 (ns)
               Beta = -.04 (ns) Beta = -.01 (ns)

Opposite-gender   r = -.01 (ns)    r = -.05 (ns)
orientation    Beta = +.00 (ns) Beta = -.00 (ns)

Home based and    r = +.02 (ns)    r = +.02 (ns)
outdoor        Beta = +.01 (ns) Beta = -.07 (ns)

Play              r = x            r = +.07 (ns)
               Beta = x        Beta  = +.05 (ns)

Beta's controlled for T1:
- fathers occupational prestige
- father’s and mother’s years of formal schooling
- number of siblings
- highschool grade point average