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Correlational findings

Study Berger (2009): study DE 1994

Public:
Mothers aged 20-65, Germany, followed 14 years, 1994-2007
Survey name:
DE-SOEP 1994
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 5706
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Employment Status
Our Classification
Operationalization
a) Short part-time employment(1-19 weekly working hours)
b) Long part-time employment (20-34 weekly working hours)
c) Full-time employment(35 or more weekly working hours)(reference category)
d) Unemployment: If (1)reported not to be in gainful employment or self-employment at the time of the interview, (2)had actively sought work during the four weeks prior to the date of the interview, and (3) is available for work within the next two weeks.
e) Out of labor force (neither employed nor self-employed and who do not meet the conditions for being unemployed)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = +.20 p < .01 OUT OF LABOR FORCE (vs Full time employment)

B controlled for:
- age
- Aae squared/1000
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.24 p < .01 B additionally controlled for:
- residual household income
- migration background
- education
- person in need of care in the household
- disabled
- self-rated health
- East Germany
- size of the municipality
- self-employed
- have a child in the coming year
- partner status
- number of children
- age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.28 p < .01 Fixed effects.
B same additional controls as OLS except for age and migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = +.22 p < .01 SHORT PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT (vs Full time employment)

B controlled for:
- age
- age squared/1000
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.20 p < .01 B additionally controlled for:
- Residual Household Income
- Migration background
- Education
- Person in need of care in the household
- Disabled
- Self-rated health
- East Germany
- Size of the municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.24 p < .01 Fixed effects.
B same additional controls as OLS except for age and migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = +.16 p < .01 LONG PARTTIME EMPLOYMENT( vs Full time employment)

B controlled for:
- Age
- Age squared/1000
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.09 p < .01 B additionally controlled for:
- Residual Household Income
- Migration background
- Education
- Person in need of care in the household
- Disabled
- Self-rated health
- East Germany
- Size of the municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.12 p < .01 Fixed effects.
B same additional controls as OLS except for age and migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.90 p < .01 UNEMPLOYMENT ( vs Full time employment)

B controlled for:
- Age
- Age squared/1000
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.89 p < .01 B additionally controlled for:
- Residual Household Income
- Migration background
- Education
- Person in need of care in the household
- Disabled
- Self-rated health
- East Germany
- Size of the municipality
- Self-employed
- Have a child in the coming year
- Partner status
- Number of children
- Age of the youngest child
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -.57 p < .01 Fixed effects.
B same additional controls as OLS except for age and migration background.
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = Specifications:
- the (negative) effect of not being able to work and short part-time work on life satisfaction is stronger among mothers with low income
- the (negative) effect of short parttime work on life satisfaction is less among mothers with a child younger than 3 years old
- the (negative) effect of long parttime work on life satisfaction is less among mothers with low income
- No differce between groups of mothers according to partner status, education, East/West Germany and age