Correlational findings

Study Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981

18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007
N = 72000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
(Change in) Tolerance of outgroups
Our Classification
Data: World Values Surveys. 52 nations involved in at least two waves between 1981 and 2007, AT LEAST 10 YEARS APART. Cases weighted for number of years between first and last survey; so countries for which the full 26-year time series was available have 2,6 times the weight of countries with a 10-year series. T1 = first survey T2 = last survey
Not reported
Respondents designated groups of people that they would not like to have as neighbors, using a list that included drug addicts, people of a different race, people with AIDS, immigrants/foreign workers, homosexuals, people of a different religion, and heavy drinkers. Respondents also indicated to what extent they felt that homosexuality can be justified, using a scale that ranged from 1 (never) to 10 (always).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.02 ns T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1 tolerance in 41 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.23 p < .05 O-Sum-*-mq-nvt-21-c b = +.29 p < .05 Change in happiness measured controling T2 by T1
B's  further controlled for:
-T1 GDP per capita
-T1 democracy
-T1 religiosity

Similar outcome for O-Sum if additionally controlled for T1-level of national pride and T1 sense of free choice.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.04 p < .05 T2-T1-CHANGE in average happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in tolerance of outgroups in 42 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.07 ns O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.15 p < .05 Change in happiness and tolerence measured controling T2 by T1
B's additionally controlled for T1T2  CHANGE in:
- GDP per capita
- democracy
- religiosity
- national pride
- sense of free choice