Correlational findings

Study Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981

18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007
N = 72000
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
(Change in) Tolerance of outgroups
Our Classification
Respondents designated groups of people that they would not like to have as neighbors, using a list that included drug addicts, people of a different race, people with AIDS, immigrants/foreign workers, homosexuals, people of a different religion, and heavy drinkers. Respondents also indicated to what extent they felt that homosexuality can be justified, using a scale that ranged from 1 (never) to 10 (always).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.02 ns T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1 tolerance in 41 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.23 p < .05 O-Sum---mq-*-14-a b = +.29 p < .05 Change in happiness measured controling T2 by T1
B's  further controlled for:
-T1 GDP per capita
-T1 democracy
-T1 religiosity

Similar outcome for O-Sum if additionally controlled for T1-level of national pride and T1 sense of free choice.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.04 p < .05 T2-T1-CHANGE in average happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in tolerance of outgroups in 42 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.07 ns O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.15 p < .05 Change in happiness and tolerence measured controling T2 by T1
B's additionally controlled for T1T2  CHANGE in:
- GDP per capita
- democracy
- religiosity
- national pride
- sense of free choice