Correlational findings

Study Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981

18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007
N = 72000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
(Change in) democracy
Our Classification
Source: Polity IV project: Examines qualities of democratic and autocratic authority in governing institutions.This perspective envisions a spectrum of governing authority that spans from fully institutionalized autocracies through mixed, or incoherent, authority regimes (termed "anocracies") to fully institutionalized democracies. The "Polity Score" captures this regime authority spectrum on a 21-point scale ranging from -10 (hereditary monarchy) to +10 (consolidated democracy)
Not reported
Expert rating of regime authority on a 21-point scale:

- 10= fully institutionalized autocracy
0=incoherent authority regime
+ 10= fully institutionalized democracy

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = -.02 p < .05 T1-T2 CHANGE happiness by T1 democracy in 41 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = -.07 p < .05 O-Sum-*-mq-nvt-21-c b = -.11 p < .01 Change happiness measured controling T2 by T1
B's further controlled for:
-T1 GDP per capita
-T1 religiosity
-T1 tolerance of outgroups

Outcome for the index less significant (at 05- level instead of 01-level) if additionally controlled for T1-level of national pride and T1-sense of free choice.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.01 ns T1-T2 CHANGE in average happiness by T1-T2 CHANGE in democracy in 42 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.04 ns O-Sum-*-mq-nvt-21-c b = +.07 p < .05 Change measured controling T2 by T1 scores of both happiness and democracy
B's further controlled T1-T2 CHANGES in::
- GDP per capita
- religiosity
- national pride
- tolerance of outgroups
- sense of free choice

Data on happiness taken from World Values Surveys, 52 nations involved in at least two waves between 1981 and 2007, AT LEAST 10 YEARS APART.
Cases weighted for number of years between first and last survey; so countries for which the full 26-year time series was available have 2,6 times the weight of countries with a 10-year series.
T1 = first survey
T2 = last survey .