Correlational findings

Study Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981

18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007
N = 72000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
(Change in) GDP per capita (in PPP/pc)
Our Classification
Source: World Bank; World Development Indicators
Not reported.
GDP per capita corrected for purchasing power parity; assessed 5 years before assesment of happiness in last survey between 1995 and 2007.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-Sum-*-mq-nvt-21-c r = +.62 AVERAGE happiness by real GDP 5 years earlier in 88 nations in last survey.

Non-linear relationship reflects pattern of diminishing returns
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.01 ns T1-T2 CHANGE in average happiness by T1-GDP in 41 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.05 p < .05 O-Sum-*-mq-nvt-21-c b = +.06 p < .05 Change in happiness measured controling T2 happiness for T1 happiness  
B's further controlled for:
-T1 democracy
-T1 religiosity
-T1 tolerance of outgroups

Similar outcome for O-Sum if additionally controlled for T1-level of national pride and T1-sense of free choice.
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = -.00 ns T2-T1 CHANGE in average happiness by CHANGE in GDP p/c in the same T1-T2 period in 42 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.20 ns O-Sum-*-mq-nvt-21-c b = +.18 ns Change in happiness and GDP measured controling T2 by T1
B's further controled for T1-T2 CHANGE in:
- democracy
- religiosity
- national pride
- tolerance of outgroups
- sense of free choice

Data on happiness taken from World Values Surveys, 52 nations involved in at least two waves between 1981 and 2007, AT LEAST 10 YEARS APART.
Cases weighted for number of years between first and last survey; so countries for which the full 26-year time series was available have 2,6 times the weight of countries with a 10-year series. T1 = first survey and T2 = last survey in a particular nation between 1981-2007.