Correlational findings

Study Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981

18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007
N = 72000
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
Change average happiness
Our Classification
Average happiness in a nation assessed at:
T1: first survey
T2: last survey, at least 10 years later

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.75 p < .001 T1 AVERAGE happiness by T2 AVERAGE happiness in 41 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.50 p < .001 O-Sum---mq-*-14-a b = +.63 p < .001 B's controlled for:
-T1 GDP per capita
-T1 democracy
-T1 religiosity
-T1 tolerance of outgroups

Similar outcome for O-Sum if additionally controlled for T1 national pride and T1-sense of free choice.

B's are positive: higher initial level at T1 (first survey) predicts higher level at T2 (last survey).
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = -.16 p < .001 T2-T1 CHANGE in average happiness by T1 AVERAGE happiness in 59 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = -.14 p < .05 O-Sum---mq-*-14-a b = -.11 p < .05 B's controlled for T1-T2 CHANGE in sense of free choice in 42 nations O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = -.29 p < .001 B additionally controlled for T2-T1 CHANGE in:
- GDP per capita
- democracy
- religiosity
- national pride
- tolerance of outgroups
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = -.12 ns O-Sum---mq-*-14-a b = -.16 ns

Negative B's mean that higher average happiness at T1 (first survey) predicts lower increase in average happiness between T2 (last survey) and T1.