Correlational findings

Study Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981

18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007
N = 72000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Change average happiness
Our Classification
Data: World Values Surveys. 52 nations involved in at least two waves between 1981 and 2007, AT LEAST 10 YEARS APART. Cases weighted for number of years between first and last survey; so countries for which the full 26-year time series was available have 2,6 times the weight of countries with a 10-year series. T1 = first survey T2 = last survey
Not reported.
Average happiness in a nation assessed at:
T1: first survey
T2: last survey, at least 10 years later

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = +.75 p < .001 T1 AVERAGE happiness by T2 AVERAGE happiness in 41 nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.50 p < .001 O-Sum-*-mq-nvt-21-c b = +.63 p < .001 B's controlled for:
-T1 GDP per capita
-T1 democracy
-T1 religiosity
-T1 tolerance of outgroups

Similar outcome for O-Sum if additionally controlled for T1 national pride and T1-sense of free choice.

B's are positive: higher initial level at T1 (first survey) predicts higher level at T2 (last survey).
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = -.16 p < .001 T2-T1 CHANGE in average happiness by T1 AVERAGE happiness in 59 nations O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = -.14 p < .05 O-Sum-*-mq-nvt-21-c b = -.11 p < .05 B's controlled for T1-T2 CHANGE in sense of free choice in 42 nations O-HL-u-sq-v-4-b b = -.29 p < .001 B additionally controlled for T2-T1 CHANGE in:
- GDP per capita
- democracy
- religiosity
- national pride
- tolerance of outgroups
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = -.12 ns O-Sum-*-mq-nvt-21-c b = -.16 ns

Negative B's mean that higher average happiness at T1 (first survey) predicts lower increase in average happiness between T2 (last survey) and T1.