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Correlational findings

Study Hessami (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 1990

Public:
18+ aged, general public, 12 European nations, 1990-2000
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 153268
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Health expenditures
Our Classification
Operationalization
Public expenditures on health as a share of total public expenditures.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b Beta = -.00 p < .01 Individual happiness by national expenditures on health.

Beta controlled for:
- individual level
  - age
  - sexe
  - relative income
  - ideological preferences
  - marital status
  - education
  - employment status
  - number of children
- national level
  - unemployment rate
  - inflation rate
  - total government expenditures
  - public education expenditures
  - public social protection expenditures

Comparable result with ordered probit estimation: OPRC= -0,190
NB: according to the author this negative correlation can be spurious because there was no control for average health status. Higher levels of health expenditures are correlated with a lower average health status in society and this leads to lower levels of well-being (p.14).