Correlational findings

Study Schiff & Bargal (2000): study IL 1995

Participants of self-help and support groups, Jerusalem, Israel, 199?
N = 90
Non Response
not reported
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Self-help group vs. support group
Our Classification
-Self-help groups: supportive, usually change oriented mutual aid group that adresses a single life problem or conditions shared by all members Use ideology to achieve change. Professionals rarely have an active role. - Support group: purpose to give emotional support and information to persons with a common problem. De not espouse an ideology and are unstructured. Often facilitated by professionnals, linked to a formal organization. The two types of groups showed no difference in their levels of self-esteem as measured by the Rosenberg (1965) scale nor in depression or anxiety levels as measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist
a: N= 71; b: N=24
A: 12-step program groups
7 different 12-step self-help groups (1 Overeaters Anonymous group, 5 Compulsive Eaters Anonymous groups, 1 Debtors Anonymous group)

B: support groups:
4 different support groups (1 hearing and speech impairment group, 1 mentally ill patients group, 2 homosexuals groups)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-?-sq-n-11-a DM = - ns                            M        SD
A = 12-step program group  7,54     1,77
B = support group          6,71     2,51