Correlational findings

Study Welsch (2002a): study ZZ 1990

Adults, general public, 54 nations, 1990s
N = 75000
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
Air pollutants
Our Classification
In kilotons urban emissions:
a Sulphur dioxide
b Nitrogen dioxide
c Particles (urban total suspended particular pollution)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a = Average happiness by air pollutants in 54 nations. O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = +.00 ns Sulphur dioxide (+.001) O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = -.00 p < .05 Nitrogen dioxide (-.004) O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = +.00 ns Particles (+.001)

B's are controled for:
- income per head
- number of scientist & engineers per thousand population

B's do not change when additionaly controled for:
- the other air pollutants
- water pollutants (phosphorus & solids)
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = - When instead the logarithm of happiness is regressed on the logarithm of the urban emissions:
- all B's are negative
- B's of sulphur dioxide and particles are insignificant
- B of nitrogen dioxide is significant

B -.004 means one that one kiloton nitrogen emissions goes with .004 points lower average happiness on scale 1-4