Correlational findings

Study Wong (1985a): study US 1984

Working parents with children <16, USA, 1984
N = 651
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaire returned by intra office mail in a sealed envelope


Authors's Label
Stress of combining job and parenting
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Alpha = .87
Related specification variables
"Here are some things people may say about combining work and family life. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements about your life as a working parent?"
a. My work schedule fits well with my family needs*.
b. There's no room in my schedule for anything out of the ordinary (e.g., a transportation delay.)
c.My child care arrangements are good for my children*.
d. I have enough time to spend with my family*.
e. I have to impose on others to help with child care.
f. I have enough free time for myself*.
g. I have more to do than I can handle comfortably.
h. I have rush to get to work on time.
i. I have time to relax with my family after work*.
j. My child care arrangements create a burden for others.
k. I have to rush home from work in time to meet my family responsibilities.
l. I have enough time for household tasks*.
Rated: 1 = Strongly disagree, 2 = disagree,3 = neither agree nor disagree, 4 = agree, 5 = Strongly agree.
* Items reverse-coded

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa r = -.29 p < .001 Married Fathers O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-i r = -.25 p < .001 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa r = -.34 p < .001 Married Mothers O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-i r = -.60 p < .001 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa r = -.40 p < .01 Single Mothers O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-i r = -.42 p < .001 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa Beta = +.08 p < .01 Married Fathers O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-i Beta = +.10 p < .01 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa Beta = -.06 p < .01 Married Mothers O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-i Beta = -.08 p < .01 O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aa Beta = -.07 p < .01 Single Mothers O-SLW-u-sq-v-4-i Beta = +.12 p < .01 Beta's controlled for:
- age
- education
- income
- organization (place of employment)
- stress
- support from friends/neighbors/relatives
- support from co-workers
- support from supervisors