# Correlational findings

## Study Deaton (2008): study ZZ 2006

Public
15+ aged, general public, 132 countries, 2006
Sample
Respondents
N = 132000
Non Response
n.a.
Assessment
Interview: face-to-face

## Correlate

Authors's Label
Income
Our Classification
Remarks
Data: Penn World Tables version 6.2
Operationalization
Logarithm of per capita Gross Domestic Product adjusted for purchasing power parities

## Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c = + Life satisfaction is higher in countries with higher GDP per capita C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c = + A doubling of GDP is associated with a constant increase in mean life satisfaction (middle broken line)

The upper line in figure 2 refers to young people (15 to 25) whereas the lower line refers to old people (60+):
- Old individuals are happier than young individuals in very rich countries
- Old individuals are less happy than young individuals in middle and low income countries
- Difference is stronger in middle income countries compared to low income countries
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c = +.84 p < .00 All countries, N=123

B does not change when controled for:
- economic growth 2000-2003
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c = +.87 p < .00 Without the countries of the former Sovjet-Union, N=111

B controled for:
- economic growth 1990-2000
- economic growth 2000-2003
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c = +.92 p < .00 All countries, N=120

B controled for:
- economic growth 2000-2003
- life expectance 2005
- change in life expectancy 1990-2005
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c = +.69 p < .00 All countries, N=123 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c = +1.6 p < .00 Among NOT POOR countries, income > \$12.000, N=38 C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c = +1.3 p < .00 Among NOT POOR countries, income > \$12.000, N=37

B controled for:
- economic growth 2000-2003
- life expectancy 2005
- change in life expectancy 1990-2005
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c = +.38 ns Among RICH countries, income > \$20.000, N=25

Insignificant due to low number of observation

B's similar across age groups

B (+.84) means that if income changes from \$10.000 to \$20.000 the happiness score increases by ((ln)20.000-(ln)10.000)*0,84 = 0,58 points due to the log scale