print

Correlational findings

Study Welsch (2002a): study ZZ 1991

Public:
Adults, general public, 54 nations, 1990s
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 75000
Non Response:
n.a.
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Environmental quality
Our Classification
Remarks
Data air quality from Air Information System (World Health Organization), data water quality from Global Environmental Monitoring System (United Nations Environment Programme)
Distribution
M=1,64 SD=0,61 Range=0-3,21, N=122
Operationalization
Aggegrated index of:  
- air quality
  - urban SO2 concentration
  - urban NO2 concentration
  - urban particles (TSP) concentration
- water quality
  - dissolved oxygen concentration
  - phosphorus concentration
  - suspended solids
  - electrical conductivity river basins

Positive values correspond to high levels of environmental quality.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.28 s Average happiness by environmental quality in 54 nations O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = -.23 ns B controled for:
- Gross National Product per head
- scientific rationality of nations
- product (interaction-term) Environmental Quality and Gross National Product
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = + s B's of product (interaction-term) Environmental Quality and:
- Gross National Product positive and insignificant
- Dummy variable OECD country positive and significant

Environmental quality contributes more with happiness in OECD countries (compared to non-OECD countries) and in rich countries (compared to poor countries)