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Correlational findings

Study Welsch (2002a): study ZZ 1991

Public:
Adults, general public, 54 nations, 1990s
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 75000
Non Response:
n.a.
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Environmental quality
Our Classification
Operationalization
Aggegrated index of:  
- air quality
  - urban SO2 concentration
  - urban NO2 concentration
  - urban particles (TSP) concentration
- water quality
  - dissolved oxygen concentration
  - phosphorus concentration
  - suspended solids
  - electrical conductivity river basins

Positive values correspond to high levels of environmental quality.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.28 s Average happiness by environmental quality in 54 nations O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = -.23 ns B controled for:
- Gross National Product per head
- scientific rationality of nations
- product (interaction-term) Environmental Quality and Gross National Product
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a b = + s B's of product (interaction-term) Environmental Quality and:
- Gross National Product positive and insignificant
- Dummy variable OECD country positive and significant

Environmental quality contributes more with happiness in OECD countries (compared to non-OECD countries) and in rich countries (compared to poor countries)