Correlational findings

Study Koch et al. (2005): study DE 2002

18-65 aged, on low wage or on social security, Germany, 2002-2003
N =
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Employment status, social assistance
Our Classification
Low wage workers receive 2/3 of the median wage
N = Aa: 2288, Ab: 27, B: 153, C: 100
A Employed full time
  a: low wage workers, no social assistance
  b: receiving social assistance
B Unemployed receiving social assistance
C Out of labor force receiving social assistance

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d DM = Aa: Employed, low wage workers    M=6,67 SD=1,68
Ab: Employed, assistance      M=6,74 SD=1,48
B: Unemployed, assistance    M=5,27 SD=1.81
C: Out of labor,assistance   M=5,61 SD=1,97
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = +.10 ns Ab: Employed and social assistance (vs Aa) O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -1,3 p < .00 B: Unemployed and social assistance (vs Aa) O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d b = -0,8 p < .00 C: out of labor force, social assistance (vs Aa)

B's controlled for:
- Net household income
- Net household income per head
- Gender
- Nationality (German, not German)
- Age
- Age squared
- Years of education in school and occupation
- Living together with a partner
- Satisfaction with health
- Level of being unfit for work activity
- Region (West, East)
- Year (2002, 2003)

Robust OLS. Ordered Probit analysis yiels similar result