Correlational findings

Study Lucas (2008): study XZ Germany West 1984

Employed - unemployed - -re-employed, Germany, followed 15 years 1984-1998
N = 3733
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Change in employment
Our Classification
All Ss were employed at baseline and were interviewed each year during 15 years
T1: employed
T2: unemployed
T3: re-employed

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d = Happiness assessed in each of the years
T1: before umemployment (average of all years 2 years before)
T2: during umemployment (the year before until year after)
T3: after re-employment (average of the years one year after re-employment)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d DMa = +.11 p < .01 Relative happiness in the years before unemployment (base line) O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d DMa = -.53 p < .001 Relative happiness during umemployment (Reaction)
- lower among males
- lower among unemployed longer than one year
- not lower among unemployed before study
- stronger among the initially most happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d DMa = -.40 p < .001 Relative happiness after re-employment (Adaptation)
- higher for average income
- lower for unemployed multiple times
- stronger among those who suffered most from earlier unemployment
- stronger among the initially most happy
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d = DMa is deviation from average and marks CHANGE in happiness in points on scale 0-10

DMa controled for:
- income
  - initial income level
  - change in income
- socio-demographic
  - age
  - gender
- employment history
  - unemployed before the study
  - lenght of unemployment during the study
  - more than once unemployed during the study