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Correlational findings

Study Bjornskov et al. (2008): study ZZ 1997 /1

Public:
18+ aged, general public, 70 nations, 1997-2000
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 87748
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Income
Our Classification
Operationalization
Income levels 1 (low) to 9 (high)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa = Individual happiness (not average) by individual income. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.10 p < .05 Income level 2 (compared to 1) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.13 p < .05 Income level 3 (compared to 1) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.27 p < .01 Income level 4 (compared to 1) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.34 p < .01 Income level 5 (compared to 1) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.47 p < .01 Income level 6 (compared to 1) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.56 p < .01 Income level 7 (compared to 1) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.57 p < .01 Income level 8 (compared to 1) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.65 p < .01 Income level 9 (compared to 1) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.74 p < .01 Income level 10 (compared to 1)

Beta's controlled for other individual level variables:
- religion
- conservative ideology
- confidence in parliament
- trust most people
- age
- gender
- education
- marital status
- children
- selfemployed
- housewife
- retired
- student
- unemployed
- service attendance (church etc.)
- belief in superior being

Beta's are similar if additionally controlled for aggregated variables at country level:
- infant mortality
- years of independence
- share of catholics
- share of protestants
- bicameral system
- openness to trade
- investment price level
- postcommunist
- Asia
- Latin America
- Africa
- Middle East and North Africa