Correlational findings

Study Levine & Norenzayan (1999): study ZZ Developed nations 1992

Adults, general public, 15 cities in developed nations, 1992-1995
N = 20000
Non Response
Behavioural observation
Observation and survey data.


Authors's Label
Pace of life
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Correlations of overall index with components: r= A: +.76, B: +.80, C: +.69. Intercorrelations: A-B: +.48, A-C: +.25, B-C: +.32
Data available on both happiness and pace of life: Switserland, Japan, Italy, England, Sweden, Netherlands, France, Poland, Singapore, United States, Canada, South Korea, Hungary, Greece, Mexico
Index of:
A Walking speed
B Postal speed
C Clock deviation

Observation in cities

A: Walking speed. Male and female walking speed over a distance of 60 feet was measured in at least two locations in main downtown areas in each city. Measurements were taken during main business hours on clear summer days. Only pedestrians walking alone were used.

B: Postal speed. The time it took postal workers to complete a standard rewuest for stamps was measured in each country. The dependent measure was the time elapsed between the pasing of the note and completion of the request. A minimum of eight postal clerks were approached in each city.

C: Clock accuracy. As a sample of concern with clock time, the accuracy of 15 clocks, in randomly selected downtown banks, werd checked in each country.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-CO-*-sq-*-11-a r = +.40 ns Walking speed M-CO-*-sq-*-11-a r = +.54 p < .05 Postal speed M-CO-*-sq-*-11-a r = +.31 ns Clock deviation M-CO-*-sq-*-11-a r = +.59 p < .05 Overall Pace of Life index