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Correlational findings

Study Bjornskov et al. (2008a): study ZZ 1997

Public
18+ aged, general public, 66 nations, 1997-2001
Sample
Respondents
N = 62295
Non Response
Assessment
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Fiscal decentralization
Our Classification
Remarks
Indicators obtained from the World Bank's fiscal indicators averaged over the period 1980-2000 to capture long term effects (page 5)
Distribution
A:  range:  -22,69  to 31,21,  SD: 12,89
B:  range:  -18.33 to 33,00 ,  SD: 12,59
C:  range:  -33,91 to  57,07,  SD:  20
D: range:   -42,05 to  33,94,  SD:  19,23
Operationalization
A Spending decentralization: Share of sub-federal spending in general spending
B Revenue decentralization: Share of sub-federal revenue in general revenue
C Transfer dependence: Share of transfers to sub-national governments from other government levels in total sub-national revenues (including grants)
D Own tax sources: Ratio of sub-national tax revenue to total sub-national revenues

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = +.10 p < .05 Individual happiness (not average) by decentralization in 66 nations

Spending decentralization
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.00 (+.004) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = +.06 p < .05 Revenue decentralization O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.00 p < .10 (+004) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = +.03 p < .05 Transfer dependence: O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = -.00 ns (-.001) O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa r = -.03 p < .05 Own tax source: O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-aa Beta = +.00 ns (+.002)

Beta's controlled for:
- nation characteristics
  - infant mortality
  - years of independence
  - religiousness
  - bi-cameral system (vs not)
  - openness of the economy
  - post-communist (vs not)
  - part of the world
  - government consumption
- individual characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - marital status
  - occupation
  - income
  - religion
  - voluntary work