Correlational findings

Study Veenhoven (2002a): study ZZ EU 12 1973

Adults, general public, EU 12 member states, 1973-1996
N = 15000
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Trend inequality in happiness 1973-1996
Our Classification
Trend assessed in 4 North European nations (Denmark, Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands) and 4 South European nations (Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) From 1980 on in Ireland, from 1985 on in Portugal and Spain
Standard deviation of responses to single  question: On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead?
4  very satisfied
3  fairly satisfied
2  not very satisfied
1  not at all satisfied
-  Don't know

Asked bi-annually 1973 to 1996

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b r = -.67 p < .000 Average standard deviation of life satisfaction by year in 12 EU nations 1973-1996.
Inequality in happiness declined in all nations except France
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-b rpc = -.59 p < .003 Trend standard deviation of happiness controlled for trend in average happiness.

Inequality in happiness declined irrespective of rising level of happiness in these nations