Correlational findings

Study Fahey & Smyth (2004a): study ZZ Europe 1999

18+ aged, general public, 33 European nations, 1999-2000
N = 39799
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
Household income
Our Classification
Self-reported household income; coded on a ten-point ordinal scale, based on income categories which differ by society. This closes off the possibility of adjusting household incomes for household size and of comparing absolute levels of household income across societies.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.12 p < .05 In all nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.19 In poorest nations in lowest GDP-quartile. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.15 In medium poor nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.09 In medium rich nations. O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = +.09 In richest nations in highest GDP-quartile.

B's controlled for at individual level:
-marital status
-age & age squared
-social class
-employment status

Unaffected by additional control at country-level for:
-GDP per capita
-income inequality
-growth GDP last 10 years
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a b = Income has more impact on life-satisfaction in poor nations, like Ukraine and Belarus, than in rich nations, like Ireland and Sweden.