Correlational findings

Study Veenhoven (2000a): study ZZ 1992

Adults, general public, 44 nations, early 1990's
N = 60000
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
Opportunities + capabilities
Our Classification
Summed opportunities factor

(Index of
a. Political freedom
(assessed by inquiries among experts, which consider legislation and practice on 11 dimensions. Both civil and political rights are condensed in one score.)
b. Economic freedom:
Expert ratings of economic freedom in nations on four aspects:
- security of the money one has
- freedom to produce/consume what one wants
- freedom to keep what one earns
- freedom of exchange
(Condensed in one score)
c. Personal freedom
(Index of:
A Official limits in freedom of abortion
B Informal limits on freedom as apparent in public rejection or acceptance of:
    - divorce
    - abortion
    - sterilization
    - homo-sexuality
    - prostitution
    - suicide
    - euthanasia
(Condensed in one score)
a, b, c combined in one factor.)

and Summed capabilities factor

(Index of

1 Information
a: literacy
b: newspapercirculation
c: televison receivers
condensed in one factor

2 Inclination to choose, involving
A Work attitude:
Average response to survey questions about importance attached to:
a: job that leaves time for personal life
b: freedom on the job
c: work that gives personal sense of achievement
d: training opportunities
e: good physical working conditions
f: use of skills at the job
Individualism: importance a,b,c > d,e,f
Collectivism:  importance a,b,c < d,e,f
B Perceived fate control:
self report on single question: WVS2 item 95

1 an 2 combined in one factor.)

are combined in one factor

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = .64 p < .01 Average happiness by opportunitie +  capabilities to choose in 46 nations O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a rpc = +.26 ns Average happiness by opportinities +  capabilities to choose in 46 nations controlled for wealth in nations O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.07 ns Average happiness by opportunitie +  capabilities to choose in 22 poor nations O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.49 p < .05 Average happiness by opportunitie +  capabilities to choose in 25 rich nations O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a = Data on happiness taken from World Database of Happiness, collection Happiness in Nations