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Correlational findings

Study Veenhoven (1999a): study ZZ 1992

Public:
Adults, general public, 43 nations, early 1990's
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 50000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Capability to choose (positive freedom)
Our Classification
Operationalization
Index of
a: literacy
b: school-enrolment
c: newspaper circulation
d: televison receivers
condensed in one factor

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.46 p < .01 Average happiness by freedom in all nations (n=33) O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a rpc = +.02 rpc controlled for economic affluence O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.17 poor countries, only O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.28 rich countries, only O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a rpc = +.38 poor countries only, rpc controlled for economic affluence O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a rpc = +.18 rich countries only, rpc controlled for economic affluence