Correlational findings

Study Veenhoven (1999a): study ZZ 1992

Adults, general public, 43 nations, early 1990's
N = 50000
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
Value: Power distance
Our Classification
Average response to 3 survey questions used to compose the power distance index among employees of an international company (IBM) in different nations:
a: Answers vy nonmanagerial employees on the question: How frequently, in your experience, does the following problem occur: employees being afraid to express disagreement with their managers? (mean score on a 1-5 scale from 'very frequently' to 'very seldom')
b: Subordinates' perception of their boss's actual decision making style (percentage choosing either the description of an autocratic or of a paternalistic style out of 4 possible styles plus a 'none of these' alternative)
c: Subordinates' preference for their boss's decision-making style (percentage preferring an autocratic or a paternalistic style, or, on the contrary, a style based on majority vote, but not a consultative style).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.50 p < .01 Average happiness by average power distance in 32 nations