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Correlational findings

Study Veenhoven (1999a): study ZZ 1992

Public:
Adults, general public, 43 nations, early 1990's
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 50000
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Value: Individualism (versus collectivism)
Our Classification
Operationalization
Average response to survey questions about work values among employees of an international company (IBM) in different nations.

Importance attached to:
a: job that leaves time for personal life
b: freedom on the job
c: work that gives personal sense of achievement
d: training opportunities
e: good physical working conditions
f: use of skills at the job

Individualism: importance a,b,c > d,e,f
Collectivism:  importance a,b,c < d,e,f

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.69 p < .01 Average happiness by average individualism in 32 nations O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a rpc = +.42 rpc controlled for economic affluence O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = -.23 poor countries only O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.67 rich countries only O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a rpc = -.26 poor countries only, rpc controlled for economic affluence O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a rpc = +.61 rich countries only, rpc controlled for economic affluence O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.12 nations of low capability to choose only O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a r = +.55 nations of high capability to choose only O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a = Capability to choose in nations measured by education (adult literacy and school enrollment ratio) and media attendence (newspaper circulation and TV's pc) combined in a factor score