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Correlational findings

Study Gundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999

Public:
18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 10517
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Iceland: face to face 74%; by phone 26% in remote areas.

Correlate

Authors's label
Social stigma attached to being single
Our Classification
Operationalization
Agreement to statement:"A marriage or long term relationship is necessary to be happy."
The response categories are: agree strongly, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree and disagree strongly.
1 low agreement in nation
2 high agreement in nation

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a D% = - percentage happy in nations where:
- agreement to statement is low = 40%
- agreement to statment is high = 33%
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a G = -.17 p < .0000 Gs controlled for
- participation in voluntary organizations
- % scoring 10 on satisfaction with life and job
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a DM = ns Happiness of singles in nations with:
- low agreement  M = 3,05  SD = 0,36
- high agreement M = 3,21  SD = 0,68
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a DM = ns Happiness of marrieds in nations with:
- low agreement  M = 3,44  SD = 0,55
- high agreement M = 3,30  SD = 0,41