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Correlational findings

Study Gundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999

Public:
18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 10517
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Iceland: face to face 74%; by phone 26% in remote areas.

Correlate

Authors's label
Personal ties in country
Our Classification
Operationalization
Self report of contacts with friends, colleagues, church members and club members:
- high
- low

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a D% = % very happy in countries where personal ties are:
- Low  34%
- High 42
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a Gs = -.22 Average happiness by average number of ties in nation.
Gs Controlled for:
- participation rate in voluntary organizations
- percentage scoring 10 on both life satisfaction and job-satisfaction
- support for the view that singles are less happy