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Correlational findings

Study Winkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984

Public:
20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 4183
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Becoming/in out of the labour force
Our Classification
Operationalization
Change in happiness following change in labour force status:
0 Employed
1 Out of labour force

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d LRCD = -.24 p < .05 LRCD -.24 means that being out of the labour force lowers the probability of being happy (>7) with approximately 6.1 %

Probability of being happy is lower for the years 1984-1986 (-12.4 %) and lower when satisfied is defined as happiness<4 (-13,7 %)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d LRCD = -.39 p < .05 age<29

LRCD -.39 means that being out of the labour force lowers the probability of being happy (>7) with approximately 9,8 %
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d LRCD = -.68 p < .01 age>29 and age <49

LRCD -.68 means that being out of the labour force lowers the probability of being happy (>7) with approximately 17 %
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d LRCD = -.05 ns age<49

LRCD's controlled for:
- unemployment
- duration of unemployment
- duration squared
- marital status
- good health condition
- age
- age squared
- household income

LRCD's denote that due to becoming out of the labour force goes with a lower probability of being happy for age 29-49 compared to younger and older ages