Findings on happiness in Veroff et al. (1981): study US 1976

Author(s)Veroff, J.; Douvan, E.; Kulka, R.A.
TitleThe Inner American: A Self-Portrait from 1957 to 1976.
SourceBasic Books, 1981, New York, USA
Public21+ aged, general public, USA, 1976
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Samples drawn by a multistage probability area design (Kish and Hess, 1965).
Respondents N =2264
Non Response29%
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Structured interview
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....? 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy
Author's labelHappiness
RemarksData 1957 1976 very happy 30%, pretty happy 57%, not too happy 11%, not ascertained 2,7%
DKNA %1.0
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.631.65

Scores in123

Full textSelfreport on single question: In general how satisfying do you find the way you are spending your life these days. Would you call it.....? 3 completely satisfying 2 pretty satisfying 1 not very satisfying
Author's labelSatisfaction
Remarksdata 1976
DKNA %1.0
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.511.53

Scores in123

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
Being a full-time housewiveE02ab01Full-time home maker
Being retiredR14abCurrent status: retired or not
Broken home backgroundF01ab02Number of parents (broken home)
Church attendanceR12ad02Participation in church
EducationE01ab02Level of school-education
Expected happinessH04aa05bIn the long run
Father's occupationS09ab01'Objective' socio-economic status
Father's occupationF01ag03Parents occupation, also classified as above ↑
IncomeI01abCurrent income level (unspecified)
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Marital status: married vs divorcedM02aa03Married vs divorced
Marital status: single vs divorcedM02ab01bVs divorced
Marital status: single vs marriedM02aa01Married vs never married
Population densityL13ab02Community size
Praying when unhappyC11ab01Current coping-style
Praying when unhappyR12ad03Praying, also classified as above ↑
Region in USAR01ab27Region in USA
ReligionR12acCurrent religious denomination
Sources of unhappinessH11ab02aPerceived sources of one's own happiness
Sources of happinessH11ab02aPerceived sources of one's own happiness
Sources of worryW07ab02Specific worries
Talking when worriedC11ab01Current coping-style
White raceE04ab03tEthnic status in the USA
WorkingE02abCurrent employment status
ZestL04ag02Psychological-morale inventories